By John M. Levesque
Contents: advent; Supercomputer structure; Fortran; Vectorization of Fortran courses. Index. This e-book explains intimately either the underlying structure of cutting-edge supercomputers and the way in which a compiler maps Fortran code onto that structure. most vital, the constructs fighting complete optimizations are defined, and particular concepts for restructuring a application are supplied
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Additional info for A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers
We discussed earlier that it is the nature of cache to fetch more words than just the one requested, so strided data will not utilize the full memory transfer rate as can be done on systems without cache. 2 THE VECTOR PROCESSOR 41 Finally, on virtual memory systems, a large stride can cause a great many page faults within the system, with relatively little use of the data moved to and from slow auxiliary storage. Number of Vector Pipelines. On the Cray computers there is only one of each kind of functional unit in a CPU: one adder, one multiplier, and so forth.
But notice that each processor would be asynchronously updating the variable SDOT. Conceptually, two processors could fetch the same value of SDOT, add their terms to it, and store it back. The first value stored would be overwritten by the second, and some terms in the sum would be lost. Examples of machines in this category are the multiprocessor Cray X-MPs, Alliant Fx/8, the BBN Butterfly, and the various hypercubes. 7 Summary In Chapter 1 we stated that the following loop required at least 400 scalar instructions to perform the desired addition: DO 1020 1 = 1 , 100 ARRAY1(I) = ARRAY2(I) + ARRAY3(I) 1020 CONTINUE 28 SUPERCOMPUTER ARCHITECTURE In fact, considering the incrementation of the index and the test and branch instruction necessary for the loop, a minimum of six instructions per iteration is needed to complete the computation.
GT. EPSLON is true] into temporary arrays in memory, the arithmetic is performed with simple vector operations on the temporary arrays, then the answers are decompressed back into the arrays A and D. GT. GT. EPSLON) THEN K = K + 1 A(I) = TEMPA(K) D(I) = TEMPD(K) ENDIF 2113 CONTINUE Finally, the stream unit performs many high-level vector instructions typically realized in hardware on other computer systems. These include dot product, sum of elements, product of elements, first difference, average, vector reverse, and many more.
A Guidebook to Fortran on Supercomputers by John M. Levesque